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New book explodes myth about cost of instruments used by Sir C V Raman



New book explodes myth about cost of instruments used by Sir C V Raman

~By Dr Hardev Singh Virk

It is a part of folklore about Indian science that Sir C V Raman made his Nobel-prize winning discovery in 1928 using instruments which cost just a few hundred rupees. A new book by a science historian has busted this myth.

Dr Rajinder Singh, a well-known historian of science, in his new book titled C.V. Raman’s Laboratory and Discovery of the Raman Effect, has brought to light certain hidden aspects of the Nobel laureate’s life and work. This is Singh’s third book on Raman.

The book provides full account of how Raman and his students created and perpetuated myth that Raman Effect was discovered by spending just 200 to 500 Indian Rupees. The myth was floated and publicized in national newspapers (The Bharat Joyti, National Herald, Indian News Chronicle) in 1940s and in the memoirs written by Raman’s students. It was projected that the facilities available at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science (IACS), Calcutta, where Raman did his experimental work, were poor.New book explodes myth about cost of instruments used by Sir C V Raman

In newspaper interviews Raman himself spoke about poor facilities available for Indian scientists. The cost of equipment used by Raman, as mentioned in newspaper articles, ranged between Rs 200 and Rs 500. Raman’s biographer and one of his former students, A. Jayaraman, wrote that “the equipment which Raman employed for the discovery was very simple and amounted to a total cost of 500 Rupees at the time.”

The new book provides a detailed list of instruments used by Raman with their cost. Their total cost has been worked out to be Rupees 7630, excluding money spent on chemicals, which cost a handsome amount those days. It details the circumstances and instruments used during discovery of Raman Effect step by step on the basis of the diary of his co-scientist K S Krishnan from February 16, 1928 onwards. The chapter is a compendium of instruments such as mercury lamps, light filters, spectroscopes and other accessories required for Raman’s investigations leading to his discovery and the Nobel Prize.

Raman started his research activity in 1907 at IACS and it included areas as diverse as acoustics, optics, X-rays, and crystallography. His research team included the best talent available in India, as shown in the book. The library of IACS subscribed to 100 popular scientific journals from Europe. Thus the research facilities were not only adequate but almost ‘unlimited’, according to the author. It was Raman’s dream to make IACS an international centre of research in India.

“Raman had a huge team of 36 trained researchers; well-equipped laboratories and workshops, and his own journal. Thus under these circumstances, it is wrong to tell that Raman worked under ‘poor’ conditions,” the book has pointed out.

In the chapter titled “Instruments for the Discovery of Raman Effect”, Singh laments that “as far as India is concerned, the history of scientific instruments is relatively unknown. Even the instruments ‘made’ or bought by renowned physicists like C V Raman, M N Saha and S N Bose have not been properly preserved”.

The book points out that Raman was in the habit of complaining about poor conditions, especially after his visits to European laboratories. In a letter written to the Registrar of Calcutta University, he boasted: “From the experience I have gained in travelling in different parts of the world and visiting the great centres where experimental research in physics is carried on, I can assert without hesitation that the facilities available to the Palit Professor of Physics for the carrying on his duties at the College of Science are miserable in the extreme.”

Besides the instruments used by Raman, the book provides an account of Raman’s general activities as a faculty member, his opponents at the University of Calcutta and the international honours received by him as Palit Professor.

Asutosh Mookerjee, an educationist and judge who later became Vice Chancellor of Calcutta University, was a staunch supporter of the scientist. Raman was made Palit Professor of Physics even when he had no foreign research degree equivalent to D.Sc and that too on his own terms and conditions against the rules of the University. However, Raman proved his worth by winning a Nobel Prize in 1930.

Raman was provided “Ghose Travelling Fellowship” under which he could visit most of the research laboratories in Europe, USA and Canada. He wrote a proposal for expanding his research activities after such visits which was rejected by the university. He wanted to change rules for Ph.D. registration but the University Senate did not approve the idea. Raman fully participated in university administration and accepted assignments in various academic bodies of the university. He preferred Bengali as medium of instruction over Sanskrit.

The most interesting section in the book talks about Raman’s so-called opponents at the university. In one instance, Raman annoyed J C Bose by offering higher salary to his trustworthy mechanic to uproot him from the Bose Institute. Raman was highly critical of research work of J C Bose and did not spare a moment to criticise him even after his death. The other scientists of the Calcutta School who did not see eye to eye with Raman were M N Saha, B S Guha, U N Brahmachari and Ganesh Prasad. The author has revealed his acumen to bring to light the reasons for the conflict between the dons of Calcutta University and Raman.

Ultimately, all opposition to Raman fizzled out after he got international honours as Palit Professor. He was conferred the Fellowship of Royal Society London, Knighthood of British Empire, and the highest award in Physics, the Nobel Prize. I want to finish my review with brilliant but somewhat sarcastic remarks of Arnab Ray Choudhury: “Raman as a scientist possessed many extraordinary qualities – brilliance of mind, astute intuition, dogged determination, tenacity, an almost unbelievable capacity for hard work – certainly modesty was not one of his qualities”. (India Science Wire)

About the book

Author: Rajinder Singh, University of Oldenburg, Germany

Publisher: Shaker Verlag GmbH, Aachen, Germany

Year of Publication: 2018; Price: 21.90 Euro; Pages: xvi + 153.


OnePlus to launch Nord CE 3 in India, specs and price leaked ahead of global debut

OnePlus may soon expand its affordable smartphone series Nord CE. It is being claimed that the company is going to launch the new OnePlus Nord CE 3 in July this year. As per the leaks, the OnePlus Nord CE 3 will be introduced as a successor to the OnePlus Nord CE 2.



OnePlus smartphone

OnePlus may soon expand its affordable smartphone series Nord CE. It is being claimed that the company is going to launch the new OnePlus Nord CE 3 in July this year. As per the leaks, the OnePlus Nord CE 3 will be introduced as a successor to the OnePlus Nord CE 2. The information about the phone has also been revealed ahead of its official debut on many digital platforms. However, the company has not yet given any information regarding the same as yet.

According to a report by My Smart Price, the OnePlus Nord CE 3 is expected to launch in July alongside of OnePlus Nord 3. The tipster also has claimed about the specification of the phone as well. Scroll down to know more about the smartphone.

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According to tipster Steve Hemmerstoffer (@OnLeaks), the OnePlus CE 3 will come with a display with 120Hz refresh rate, under which the user will be able to have a high definition display quality while playing videos. The handset is also likely to feature a 6.72 inch Full HD Plus AMOLED display. Earlier it was being said that this phone will be introduced with an IPS LCD screen. However, the confirmation is still awaited.

Leaks also suggested that the OnePlus Nord CE 3 is expected to be powered by the octa-core Snapdragon 782G processor coupled with up to 12GB of RAM and up to 256GB of inbuilt storage. The upcoming OnePlus Nord CE 3 could be equipped with three rear cameras. The phone can get a 50-megapixel Sony IMX890 primary sensor, an 8-megapixel ultra-wide-angle lens, and a 2-megapixel macro lens. The phone is expected to get a 16-megapixel sensor for selfie and video calls.

The handset is said to have an in-display fingerprint sensor, a 5000mAh battery with 80W fast charging support, dual-band Wi-Fi, 5G, 4G LTE, Bluetooth and a USB Type-C port.

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Vivo launches color-changing back panel smartphone V27 Pro in India, check price and specs

The Chinese smartphone manufacturer Vivo has launched its awaited color-changing back panel smartphone V27 Pro in India, along with the lower variant V27. Interested customers can purchase the handset in magic blue and noble black color



Vivo V27 Smartphone

The Chinese smartphone manufacturer Vivo has launched its awaited color-changing back panel smartphone V27 Pro in India, along with the lower variant V27. Interested customers can purchase the handset in magic blue and noble black color. Pre-booking of Vivo V27 Pro has started and sales will be from March 6. The sale of Vivo V27 will start from 23 March.

As per the official details, the handset is the upgraded version of the Vivo V25 series, which was launched last year. The company has introduced the Vivo V27 Series with Android 13-based Funtouch OS 13 and MediaTek processor, under which customers will be able to access heavy applications without and lag.

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Know everything about the Vivo’s Vivo V27 and V27 Pro

As per the photos shared by the company, Vivo V27 Pro and Vivo V27 come with a 3D curved screen with a refresh rate of 120Hz that offers users to have a high-definition screen experience while playing any video. It comes with a glass panel that changes color whenever some light or sun rays strike it. Both Vivo V27 Pro and Vivo V27 phones have three rear cameras, and features. The Vivo V27 Pro has a MediaTek Dimensity 8200 processor, while Vivo V27 has Dimensity 7200 5G processor. Both the chipset have been considered the advance chipset in the Indian market.

Price of Vivo’s V27 and V27 Pro

The price of 128 GB storage with 8 GB RAM of Vivo V27 Pro is Rs 37,999. At the same time, the price of 256 GB storage with 8 GB RAM has been kept at Rs 39,999. The 256 GB storage variant with the phone’s 12 GB RAM is priced at Rs 42,999. The price of 128 GB storage with 8 GB RAM of Vivo V27 has been priced at Rs 32,999 and 256 GB storage with 12 GB RAM has been priced at Rs 36,999.

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Samsung set to launch Galaxy S23 FE, design and specs leaked ahead of official launch



The leading smartphone manufacturer Samsung recently launched the Galaxy S23 series in India, since then, the handsets became the talk of the time. Now the company is all set to attract more customers as it has decided to launch an affordable variant of Samsung Galaxy S23 FE in the country.

Ahead of the official launch, many information such as specs, design leaked on digital platforms, claiming the handset might come with the latest processor with a 120 Hz AMOLE display that will allow users to have a high-definition experience while playing videos or using the phone. As per the leaks, the phone could be equipped with a flagship chipset launched by Qualcomm last year. However, the South Korean tech giant hasn’t revealed anything regarding the same as of now. Not even the price and launch date.

Once launched, interested customers can purchase the smartphone from the company’s authorized store. If one wants it at an additional discount, they can purchase the phone from the e-commerce giant Amazon or Flipkart.

Know everything about Samsung Galaxy S21 FE

Tipster Connor (@OreXda) claims that the Samsung Galaxy S23 FE will be powered by the Snapdragon 8+ Gen 1 processor. It is the second most powerful chipset from Qualcomm after Snapdragon 8 Gen 2. A lot of flagship phones of this year shared the with same Snapdragon 8 Gen 1 such as OnePlus 11R, Xiaomi 12S Ultra, Asus Zenfone 9, Samsung Galaxy Z Flip 4, and Oppo Find N2 among others.

It said that the upcoming Samsung Galaxy S21 FE might replace the company’s feature-loaded smartphone Galaxy A74. It is expected that the company likely to launch the S21 FE at a similar price as A74.

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